You can find some of advanced data structures implemented in Boost. Of course you don't have to know all them, it is enough to be aware they exist.
- ICL - interval containers
- bimap - bi-directional map (access items by key or by value)
- optional - good for marking argument as optional instead of using NULL pointer
- multi_index - access items by several different keys
- circular_buffer - buffer which you don't have to process as a whole at once
- BGL - graph containers & algorithms